“brothers and sisters beloved by God…” (1:4)
“You yourselves know, brothers and sisters…” (2:1)
“You remember our labour and toil, brothers and sisters…” (2:9)
“For you, brothers and sisters…” (2:14)
“As for us, brothers and sisters,” (2:17a)
“For this reason, brothers and sisters…” (3:7)
“Finally, brothers and sisters…” (4:1)
“But we do not want you to be uninformed, brothers and sisters…” (4:13a)
“Now concerning the times and the seasons, brothers and sisters…” (5:1a)
“But we appeal to you, brothers and sisters…” (5:12)
Clearly this is the default expression of Paul’s in this letter. He wants them to know that they are equally children of the same God through the same Lord, Jesus.
“we never came with words of flattery or with a pretext for greed; nor did we seek praise from mortals, whether from you or from others, though we might have made demands as apostles of Christ. But we were gentle among you, like a nurse tenderly caring for her own children. So deeply do we care for you that we are determined to share with you not only the gospel of God but also our own selves, because you have become very dear to us.” (2:5b-8)
As opposed to a kind of person who flatters or seeks to use people as a means to selfish profit (material or psychological), Paul and his companions were “gentle…like a nurse tenderly caring for her own children.” They wanted to share their very selves like a mother gives of herself in the process of nursing and nurturing babies. The image is of loving self-sacrifice (the kind that all mothers know well) as opposed to leaching self-aggrandizement.
“As you know, we dealt with each one of you like a father with his children, urging and encouraging you and pleading that you should lead a life worthy of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory.” (2:11-12)
Paul and his companions not only embodied the (traditionally considered) female in their leadership but also the male. They sought to be both nursing mom and admonishing father. The father would traditionally instruct the children in Torah (which means “teaching”). Teaching requires a stricter more disciplined discourse. So Paul is saying that they were like Fathers in their teaching capacity toward Thessalonika.
“for a short time, we were made orphans by being separated from you—in person, not in heart—we longed with great eagerness to see you face to face.” (2:17)
It’s one thing to be a brother (makes sense theologically) and father and mother (what parent can honestly say they do not act as both father and mother (in Paul’s use of these pictures) towards their children?). But then to be a child to them as well? That seems a little strange. I don’t know what Paul exactly meant in this metaphor and can only speculate. But from the context we know that they themselves “longed…to see [the Thessalonians] face to face” and this suggests a kind of need for the congregations, a kind of loneliness and isolation that one feels when separated from home, from parents. I can recall feeling this way in a small way when I was left accidentally at Walden Pond by my parents when I was 11. Regardless, in some way Paul felt like a child to the Thessalonian church. To go out on a limb, perhaps it is the case that the parenting relationship of pastor to church is a two way enterprise and Paul is giving us this insight. The church is the pastor’s parent and the pastor is the church’s parent. This is because we are all equal partakers of the Spirit and thus as brother and sisters we can be mothers and fathers to one another in an egalitarian way (Patriarchy watch out).
Regardless of the metaphor, the relationship is one of love, given and received. Now in a brotherly, sisterly way, now in a motherly way, now in a fatherly way, now in a childlike way. None of these metaphors are held exclusively to pastor or exclusively to church. And so when we read Paul calling the church “beloved” in chapter five —
“But you, beloved…” (5:4)
“And we urge you, beloved…” (5:14)
“Beloved, pray for us.” (5:25)